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The world health organisation defines infertility as the inability to conceive spontaneously after one year of regular, unprotected sex. One in six couples experiences some difficulty getting pregnant. It is estimated that there are more than 25 million people in europe who suffer from this problem. A womans fertility declines after the age of 35, so it is recommended that for women aged 35 and over, targeted screening of the couple should start after 6 months of regular unprotected sex.

Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility is defined as never having had a pregnancy, while secondary infertility is defined as having had a confirmed pregnancy in the past. Infertility in a couple can be caused by female or male factors, or a combination of both. Treatment significantly increases the chance of a successful pregnancy.

The Ljubljana Gynaecology Clinic provides the diagnosis and treatment of infertility up to the need for assisted reproductive technology (ART), which is carried out in specialised ART centres.

The Ljubljana Gynaecology Clinic provides diagnosis and treatment of infertility

A woman’s infertility screening may include a general gynaecological examination and the following specific examinations:

  • Ultrasound examination (US): 2D and 3D examination of the uterus and ovaries. We assess congenital and acquired abnormalities. In the ovaries, the number of embryonic or antral follicles (AFC), which represent the ovarian reserve, is counted. Sonohysterography can also be performed, where a saline solution is injected into the uterine cavity through a catheter, allowing us to see changes in the lining of the uterus that are otherwise invisible using ultrasound.
  • Marker test: We check ovulatory and pituitary hormones that regulate reproductive function.
  • Ovulation tests: Hormones are determined in the blood to show the presence or absence of ovulation.
  • Hysterosalpingo Contrast Sonography (HyCoSy): We assess the uterus and whether the fallopian tubes are open or blocked. The contrast is passed into the abdominal cavity through a catheter inserted into the uterine cavity, through the fallopian tubes and into both ovaries if the fallopian tubes are open. If the fallopian tubes are blocked, we can see the site of the fallopian tube blockage with the ultrasound.
  • ERA/EMMA/ALICE test and NK cell immunoassay


Male examination:

  • Seminal discharge examination (spermiogram): Occasionally, two samples need to be given. A seminal fluid sample is obtained by masturbation and ejaculation into a sterile cup. In case of an abnormal result, further tests are required.